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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an antisemitic pamphlet that was originally used to oppose the agenda of Theodor Herzl, founder of Zionist Organization (ZO), a modern and political Zionist movement. It conveys a Judeo-Masonic plan to achieve world domination. Protocols was first published in August 1903, and was later exploited by the Nazi party in 1921. The Nazis prepared it in pamphlet form, publishing it internationally as a propaganda tool to polarise international Jewish conspiracy. The implications of Protocols was catastrophic, because it ultimately incited the Jewish Holocaust in Germany and in Russia.


Saint Petersburg daily newspaper Znamya, printed the first abridged edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, in series, from 28 August to 7 September O.S. 1903. The printing was in response to the Sixth Zionist Congress, held on August 23, 1903, in which Theodor Herzl caused great division amongst Zionist delegates when he presented the “Uganda Scheme” - a proposed Jewish colony in what is now part of Kenya.

Austro-Hungarian Jewish lawyer, Theodor Herzl organised the Zionist Congress as the supreme organ of the Zionist Organization (ZO) and its legislative authority. Zionist Congress is held for the World Zionist Organization to elect its officers and decide on policies of the WZO and the Jewish Agency, including "determining the allocation of funds." The first Zionist Congress was held in Basel, Switzerland on 29 August 1897. The three day event was attended by 208 delegates of the Zionist political movement, and 26 press correspondents.

Herzl envisioned a mass migration of Jewish people "on a very large scale" to Palestine and that the colony should be "secured by public law". For the next seven years Herzl devoted himself to achieving this vision. His first approach was an attempt to gain Ottoman backing. He lobbied Sultan Abdulhamid II with proposals of Jewish financial assistance. Herzl also approached British politicians with proposals for colonies in Cyprus and al Arish. By 1903 none of these approaches had produced any results. Herzl died the following year.

By the time of the Sixth Zionist Congress held on August 23rd, it was becoming apparent of divisions within the Zionist Organization (ZO), those who were in opposition to Theodor Herzl's policies and agenda. The opposing Zionist members fed Herzl's policies in a negative light, to Pavel Krushevan of Russia, to incite Herzl's fall. Krushevan was publicly known as an ultra-nationalist and anti-semtic. Just a few months prior, he instigated the Kishinev pogrom, an anti-Jewish riot in the Russian Empire, on O.S. 6–8 April, 1903.

Pavel Krushevan took Zionist Theodor Herzl's policies and agenda, and published them as Protocols against the entire Zionist movement, in the Saint Petersburg daily newspaper Znamya in August 1903. A wave of anti-Jewish riots resulted, with much bloodier waves of pogroms breaking out from 1903 to 1906. An estimated 2,000 Jews died and many more wounded, as they sought to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against Jews in Odessa was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jews killed.

After the formation of the Nazi party, they immediately prepared the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in pamphlet form in 1921, publishing it internationally and in many different languages, as a propaganda tool to promote the belief of an international Jewish conspiracy. It stirred a response from the Zionist Organization (ZO) to sway media outlets in different countries, to print that Protocols is just a hoax. In 1921, British newspaper The Times did just that. When the Nazi party was still in its infancy, Zionist Organization even got German newspaper Frankfurter Zeitung in 1924 to print that Protocols was a hoax.

As the Nazi party rose to power in 1933, its agenda to use Protocols became more aggressive. Distillations of the work were assigned by German schoolteachers to be read by German students. Eventually, Protocols was promoted with so much fear of Jewish domination, that it led to Jewish Holocausts in Germany and in Soviet Russia.